effect of heat on minerals
367–370 in Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise, H. Howard and J.R. Poortmans, eds. Sullivan, and S.C. Skoryna 1982 Effect of exercise on concentration of elements in the serum. Redistribution of serum magnesium into red blood cells (Abbasciano et al., 1988; Deuster et al., 1987; Lukaski et al., 1983) and into adipocytes (Franz et al., 1985) with exercise has also been reported. Although there is a common perception that athletes as a group tend to have a high incidence of anemia compared to sedentary populations, hematological surveys of elite athletes have typically not supported this idea (Brotherhood et al., 1975; de Wijn et al., 1971; Stewart et al., 1972). Exposure to extremes in temperature by itself can result in a stimulation of the acute-phase response with subsequent changes in zinc metabolism (Sugawara et al., 1983; Uhari et al., 1983); sweat losses of zinc can range from 0.5 to 1 mg per liter (Aruoma et al., 1988; Van Rij et al., 1986). Frenkel 1989 The frequency of anemia and iron deficiency in the runner. 29:449–451. Carroll, S.L. The phenomenon of sports anemia has been associated with increased erythrocyte destruction, depressed iron absorption, increased sweat loss of iron, and gastrointestinal blood loss (Dressendorfer et al., 1991; Ehn et al., 1980; Frederickson et al., 1983; Paulev et al., 1983; Puhl et al., 1981; Stewart et al., 1984). Res. J. Appl. Keen 1987 Hypertension-induced alterations in copper and zinc metabolism in Dahl rats. (1983) reported that plasma copper concentrations decreased in male and female subjects following exposure to hot temperatures in a sauna bath. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The mechanisms underlying the development of exercise-induced hypozincemia are presumably multifactorial and may include impaired absorption of zinc, excessive sweat and urinary loss of the element, and an altered metabolism of zinc (Anderson et al., 1984; Deuster et al., 1989; Miyamura et al., 1987). Although the above observations suggest that selenium metabolism may be influenced by exercise, to date there is no compelling evidence that selenium supplementation is necessary for individuals engaged in endurance activities (Lane, 1989; Lang et al., 1987). Moser, R.A. Vigersky, A. Singh, and E.B. 18:443–448. Brooks, and L. Packer 1982 Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Van Rij, A.M., M.T. 40:743–746. DR. NESHEIM: Thank you. Liu, L., G. Borowski, and L.I. Wilson 1989 Nutritional elements in U.S. diets: Results from the Total Diet Study, 1982 to 1986. Harding, and J.E. Ehn, L., B. Carlmark, and S. Hoglund 1980 Iron status in athletes involved in intense physical activity. Nutr. Am. Snyder, A.C., L.L. 11:58–60. Caeruloplasmin maintains levels of functional enzyme activity during differentiation of K562 cells. Stromme 1973 Whole blood, serum and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations after repeated heavy exercise of long duration. However, note that in the study by Singh et al. Institute of Medicine. 1:213–217. Nutr. Yoshimura, H. 1970 Anemia during physical training (sports anemia). Magnesium Res. Med. Although the average zinc intake during the field exercise was lower than zinc intakes in a sedentary control group of soldiers who were fed the same food, intakes by both groups were considered adequate. 1998 Jan;61(1):66-72. doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-61.1.66. Int. Sci. Runyan, and S.J. Space Environ. Lang, J.K., K. Gohil, L. Packer, and R.F. (1964) reported that the amount of copper lost via sweat can be considerable; men who were maintained at 37.8°C and 50 percent relative humidity lost as much as 1 mg per day in sweat. Terjung, R.L., W.W. Winder, K.M. 64:249–252. 7. J. Biol. Med. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. J. Clin. Uhari et al. Deuster, P.A., S.B. Deuster 1991 Biochemical indices of selected trace minerals in men: Effect of stress. 120 0 obj <>stream (1970) reported that serum magnesium concentrations in marathon runners immediately following a race were significantly lower than prerace values, a phenomenon that was attributed to sweat losses of the element during the run. Moser-Veillon 1989 Zinc status of highly trained women runners and untrained women. Pp. Am. 116:927–935. Although the metabolic functions of chromium have not been clearly defined, chromium is known to be involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, presumably via a role in insulin action. 0000001316 00000 n 115 0 obj <> endobj J. Clin. Jenkins, R.R. Hurley, and J.S. 32:123–127. 40:6–11. Eur. Munoz, L.M. 1986 Antioxidant properties of the proteins caeruloplasmin, albumin, and transferrin. (1984) reported that serum chromium concentrations were increased in adult males immediately after a 6-mile run at near-maximal running capacity. (1983) reported a case in which an exercise-induced reduction in plasma magnesium was associated with the induction of carpopedal spasms in a 24-year-old woman. Zinc absorption from typical foods ranges from 10 to 40 percent (King and Turnlund, 1989); thus the type of meal fed will have a significant effect on the zinc balance of individuals exposed to the above conditions. It is well recognized that iron-deficiency anemia can be associated with a diminished performance in maximal and submaximal physical exercise (Andersen and Barkve, 1970; Edgerton et al., 1981; Gardner et al., 1977; McDonald and Keen, 1988 and references cited therein). Similarly, Liu et al. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk. Ann. Cooper, and D.M. J. Clin. Vallerand, A.L., J.-P. Cuerrier, D. Shapcott, R.J. Vallerand, and P.F. Heat as a Factor in the Perception of Taste, Smell, and Oral Sensation, 11. Proc. Med. 21:643–648. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. 65:238–309. Edelson, and G. Weissmann 1979 Ceruloplasmin. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Med. Urinary zinc concentrations in the active soldiers increased from an average basal level of 400 µg per day to about 700 µg per day during the study. Note that an intermediate value for zinc absorption was used for these calculations. Hartley, D.E. 28:251–253. Dressendorfer and Sockolov (1980) have suggested that a high level of constant exercise can have long-lasting effects on zinc metabolism. Med. Couzy, F., P. Lafargue, and C.Y. Effects of high pressure and heat treatment on the mineral balance of goats' milk. $4�%�&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz�������������������������������������������������������������������������� ��� ? Given that prolonged exposure to a regimen of strenuous exercise and/or exposure to conditions resulting in high rates of sweat loss is associated with marked changes in zinc metabolism (see below), the potential negative effects of excess iron supplementation are clear. Hambidge, K.M. Coil. Keen, C.E. Am. 52:57–61. However, given the observation that typical selenium intakes are only on the order of 100 µg per day (Pennington et al., 1984), the loss reported by Consolazio seems excessive, and may reflect the technical difficulties involved in measuring this element. Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations. ���2:��BjiH E�EP4.�� 666F�iH�@aD �0���� �Sw��0����0�bpn`�`�b^�2�a ��A� ������0,oK`Lc�w�`Hg`VP�a�o�`������ �LX��0�`� 4������H��6�Ae��2d_`(a�n``� ����!��]�у!����Q�A�����7��/�C�����2P �^� ��� (1985) have reported that providing highly bioavailable iron (heme iron in meat) or iron supplements (105 mg per day) can retard the development of low serum ferritin concentrations. 2016 May;87(5):703-9. doi: 10.1111/asj.12435. Tables are given of pressure effect on thermal conductivity of minerals and rocks, anisotropy of conductivity, thermal expansion, heat transfer, density, heat … Am. This observation was extended by Hetland et al. Med. 115 6 Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Casey, and C.L. Rev. Stevens, M.D., R.A. Disilvestro, and E.P. Bothwell, W.R. Bezwoda, F. Kramer, and J. Hattingh 1987 Hematologic, iron-related, and acute-phase protein responses to sustained strenuous exercise. Am. Biochem. J. One of the enzymes increased is the copper-containing protein, cytochrome oxidase (Terjung et al., 1973). Sports Med. 84:771–780. Lab. Salt balance and rennet clotting properties of cow's, ewe's, and goat's milks preserved with carbon dioxide. 46:709–712. Chem. Studies aimed at better defining the amount of chromium lost in sweat at different amounts of sweat loss are clearly needed. Nutr. DR. Stendig-Lindberg, G., Y. Shapiro, Y. Epstein, E. Galun, E. Schonberger, E. Graff, and W.E.C. J. Clin. Consolazio, C.F. Not a MyNAP member yet? Intern. 100:843–845. Milne, and H.H. 1988 Free radical chemistry. Ann. Stewart, J.G., D.A. J. Clin. Anderson et al. Pp. endstream endobj 119 0 obj <>stream Lowe, E.W. (1988) observed a reduction in plasma zinc concentrations in male soldiers engaged in a 34-day field exercise at an elevation of 1800 m. The field exercise was simulated combat in which the men performed combat-support activities during both day and night and during which time they lost sleep.
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